Understanding cultural values and co-sleeping Thursday, Sep 11th In the United States, as an individualistic culture, it is common for parents to gently push their children away.
Cultural Differences and Baby Sleep Bedtime. Bedtime varies greatly from country to country, we’ve learned. Here in the U.S., it seems standard to put young children (especially babies) to bed early — around or p.m., and sometimes even p.m. ala Weissbluth. Many of our American clients also view bedtime as “fixed” — that . Parents need to pay special attention to all details on and around the bed in order to provide a safe co-sleeping environment for infants. The study, “Cultural Variation in Infants’ Sleeping Arrangements: Questions of Independence” conducted by Gilda Morelli compared sleeping patterns of Mayan families with sleeping patterns of United States . Infants' sleeping arrangements are related to the community's values (Morelli, Rogoff, Oppenheim, & Goldsmith, ) as culture determines normal and problematic sleep behavior, affecting sleeping.
Emotional Learning in Infants: Patrice Marie Miller, Ph. Harvard Medical School and Salem State College The current paper examines subcortically based early emotional learning in infants from diverse cultures.
We speculate about some long-term deleterious or beneficial effects of this early learning. According to their specific goals for children, different cultures provide different child rearing environments and obtain different behavioral outcomes.
As a result, the behavior of infants, young children and older individuals varies across cultures. Although we would not argue that these early experiences are completely formative by themselves, there tends to be continuity of socialization over time.
The fundamental behavior patterns set into place during early socialization are further elaborated on as the child grows, and they persist into adulthood. Cultures may have markedly different goals and socialization practices. In addition, what is viewed in one culture as normal emotional learning and obviously the correct methods for achieving that learning, may be seen by another culture as strange, deficient or even pathological.
As will also become clear, although there is considerable work on early emotional learning during the first monthsthere is little work explicitly and directly relating this early learning to later behavior. This paper will conclude with some suggestions for doing so. In particular, it is suggested that early stressful experiences may result in a differential ability to handle stressful experiences later in life.
The mechanisms by which this is accomplished are: Early Learning Much emotional and interactive behavior is learned during the first 6- to 7-months of life, and much of this learning takes place subcortically.
According to Emde and his colleagues Emde and his colleagues as well as others e. During this shift, changes take place in the frontal lobes of the cortex such that the cortex becomes more involved in planning and carrying out deliberate actions.
These changes involve both myelination of the frontal cortex, the growth of connections between that area and other brain areas, and the death of some of the extra neurons present in these areas. Therefore, we would infer that before this biobehavioral shift is the period during which subcortical learning might be most prevalent.
Even after this biobehavioral shift, when the cortex is more involved in behavior, there is a variety of different evidence that suggests that subcortical processing may continue to be an important part of learning and experiencing emotions.
For example, Todd et al. Today, we focus on experiences that infants have before the 7- to 9- month bio-behavioral shift takes place. A more detailed paper would show either that the continuation of practices into early childhood and beyond could strengthen patterns already established, or that a shift in practices might change the eventual outcome.
Rather than relying on data from one study, this paper integrates results from a variety of published studies. None of these data were originally collected with the purpose of this paper in mind.
We feel that this gives us a relatively conservative method of evaluating the hypothesis that a large amount of emotional learning can take place early in life. In examining how infant behavior develops in different cultures we will use the model proposed by Sigel Sigel Sigel proposes a model that relates parental beliefs and goals to parental behavior, which is then related to child behavioral outcomes.
Differing Parental Goals and Behavior Parents in different cultural settings have different goals for their children. LeVine and colleagues LeVine et al. The major goals are for children to learn to feel emotionally independent from their parents and to develop interactive and language skills.
We will outline a number of features of this model. Independence and Sleeping Patterns In order to accomplish their goals, American parents engage in a number of behaviors. In Morelli et al.
For the vast majority, this lasted only for the first 3 months or so of life, at which time infants were moved into their own rooms. The Gusii would be quite shocked by these practices. Other Separation North American parents are also relatively tolerant of other separations: More extended separations continue to be tolerated by some.Although we are not aware of studies that have measured cortisol levels in infants sleeping apart from their parents and those sleeping with their parents, there is some evidence that these sleeping practices are stressful for American infants.
Examines the decisions of middle-class US and Highland Mayan parents regarding sleeping arrangements during their child's 1st 2 yrs and their explanations for their differing practices. All 14 children in a Mayan sample slept in their mothers' beds into toddlerhood, whereas none of the 18 children in a U.S.
sample slept in their mothers' beds on a regular basis. Mayan and U.S. parents' explanations for these practices are reported. (BC). Last name, First: _____ “Cultural Variations in Infants’ Sleeping Arrangements” Due: 1/31/ in class You have been assigned the Morelli et al.
() article. This reading is an example of an empirical research article. Cultural Differences and Baby Sleep Bedtime. Bedtime varies greatly from country to country, we’ve learned.
Here in the U.S., it seems standard to put young children (especially babies) to bed early — around or p.m., and sometimes even p.m. ala Weissbluth. Many of our American clients also view bedtime as “fixed” — that .
A Parent Interview “Cultural Variation in Infants’ Sleeping Arrangements: Questions of Independence” by Morelli et. all was an intriguing article that introduced the similarities and differences of .