December 16, We know why projects fail, we know how to prevent their failure — so why do they still fail? But the author was talking about Information Technology and Information System project failures, as they existed in Information Technology and Information System failures have been the topic of many articles, conferences, symposiums, studies, and research initiatives. The literature of the IT and IS community is rife with articles and commentary about project failures.
How to Write a Summary of an Article? South Africa Introduction According to Tonkinlow —cost housing is dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed affordable to a group of people within a specified income range, low cost housing includes social housing and low income housing.
Sincethe government has been implementing this program to address the housing backlog which is continuously increasing. Some of the successes include provision of housing to the poor at affordable rates and failures include that it promotes continuous segregation of people in accordance with economic class and race Tonkin, The main purpose of this paper is to identify and discuss the successes and failures of low cost housing RDP.
The Successes of Low-Cost housing in Post-Apartheid Low cost housing has brought attention of excellence to South Africa by different countries in the world. Researchers have suggested that South Africa by had build-up 2 million houses for the poor. South Africa has been identified on the international arena as a country leading by example in relation to the initiatives it takes to provide low cost housing Tonkin, Furthermore, Tonkin suggests that low-cost housing has managed to provide housing to the poor who could not afford housing on the market.
The market forces could not provide for choice and selection for these people to have housing of their preferred choices. Low cost housing has played a role of making equitable selection for those who cannot afford housing.
This has helped in improving the living conditions for these poor households. In addition, jobs have been created due to the low cost housing provision process. Low cost housing has played the role of job creation strategy.
South Africa has been hit by massive unemployment rates sincewhich has made most to survive on nothing, due to no shortage of employment opportunities Tonkin, Moreover, Tonkin indicates that the historically black population, which has been supressed by the apartheid system, have been catered for, by low cost housing.
Back under the apartheid blacks were not allowed to have accommodation especially in towns. Exclusionary zoning was the ordinance which dominated the housing allocation, favouring those with money and those who are racially deemed acceptable.
Low cost housing has been a catalyst in addressing this issue. Lastly, low cost housing has made availability of cheap labour especially in areas, where low cost housing is located near heavy industries.
The availability of the labour has made industries to operate on low cost strategies and help them utilize their resources more efficiently and effectively. In addition expenses for these industries reduce especially in relation to wage expenses Tonkin, One of the failures of low cost housing is that a small number of the population have benefited from the program.
In South Africa a larger share of the total population lives in informal self-built houses. In reality low cost housing has failed to benefit large groups of people Zhang, To add more, Zhang clarifies that low cost housing has even made lives of the poor to become more difficult, this is because the RDP s have been characterised by the issue of being of low quality.
Reports have made variously about their lack of quality by occupiers. Some of the issues raised include that the roofs in some instances are always leaking when it rains, another issue has been of the material used which can be easily get damaged by wind or other elements of nature.
Furthermore, low cost housing has been responsible for the failure to link efficiently and effectively people to employment areas Zhang, This has made people to travel longer distances to their employment areas, eventually people will be forced to fork out large sums of money.
Tonkin has highlighted that most RDP houses have become residential dormitories because most beneficiaries choose to rent their homes and move back to informal settlements or other housing closer to work. In addition, Tonkin suggests that low cost hosing has een unable to create or provide integrated development.
Segregation of the poor households still exists and in some racial segregation is also present. Therefore this perpetuates marginalisation of the poor and does not contribute to the compaction, integration and restructuring of the apartheid city ZhangThis segregation has made South African cities to be identified as some of the least dense cities in the world and eventually in the end low cost housing does not allow mixed housing as an alternative solution.
According to ZhangRDP housing in some instances has promoted violent clashes amongst different groups of low cost housing recipients, the main reason is that housing has not been adequately distributed effectively enough to cover the whole section of those who cannot afford it. Housing delivery process has been poor.
In addition, the major part of the land where the houses for RDP are built was once used as mainly farm land Zhang, The disturbing conclusion from this Standish report is that only % of projects were successful by all measures, and that of the 70% of projects that were not successful, Over 52 percent were partial failures and 31% were complete failures.
This document - The Reconstruction and Development Programme (RDP) - is the end of one process and the beginning of another. The document is the result of many months of consultation within the ANC, its Alliance partners and other mass organisations in the wider civil society.
It is through the RDP White Paper that the Government can now embrace and support so many of the other recent and forthcoming contributions to the RDP process, including official provincial government RDP documents, local authority RDP programmes and projects, and contributions of resources from across society.
The Cost of Success In college, students deal with multiple stress factors and finances should not be included. Numerous of students graduate high school each year and only a . report on low-cost housing problems.
Her report included problems such as houses that didn’t have foundations and homes built from materials that crumbled at the touch. Some houses’ defects were BP RDP Housing Success or Failure 4 building defects. Between and the. Success and Failures of Low-Cost (Rdp) Housing Post- monstermanfilm.com Africa Pages: 3 Words: Introduction According to Tonkin (), low –cost housing is dwelling units whose total housing costs are deemed affordable to a group of people within a specified income range, low cost .