Titanium dioxide and zinc oxide, commonly used today in micronized form for a more inconspicuous cosmetic look these physical sunscreens formerly tended to be stark white on the skinare used singly or combined with other active ingredients to protect against both UVB and UVA titanium dioxide across the UVA2 spectrum, — nm; zinc oxide against both UVA2 and UVA1 — —nm. Chemical sunscreen ingredients that provide only UVB absorption are usually combined with others that cover some UVA wavelengths. UVB-absorbing organics include the cinnamates, with octinoxate octyl methoxycinnamate being the best known and most widely used; and the salicylates, most often octisalate octyl salicylate and homosalate. The benzophenone group of organics, including dioxybenzone, oxybenzone, and sulisobenzone, brought coverage into the UVA range, specifically offering protection against UVA2 as well as UVB.
Varieties of business ethics Many people engaged in business activity, including accountants and lawyers, are professionals. As such, they are bound by codes of conduct promulgated by professional societies. Many firms also have detailed codes of conduct, developed and enforced by teams of ethics and compliance personnel.
Business ethics can thus be understood as the study of professional practices, i.
This entry will not consider this form of business ethics. Instead, it considers business ethics as an academic discipline. Business ethics as an academic discipline is populated by both social scientists and normative theorists. This is reflected in the attendees of academic conferences in business ethics and the types of articles that are published in business ethics journals.
Social scientists—who at this point comprise the largest group within the field—approach the study of business ethics descriptively. They try to answer questions like: Does corporate social performance improve corporate financial performance, i. I will not consider such questions here.
This entry focuses on questions in normative business ethics, most of which are variants on the question: What is ethical and unethical in business? Considered only as a normative enterprise, business ethics—like many areas of applied ethics—draws from a variety of disciplines, including ethics, political philosophy, economics, psychology, law, and public policy.
This is because remedies for unethical behavior in business can take various forms, from exhortations directed at private individuals to change their behavior to new laws, policies, and regulations.
One is that the means of production can be privately owned. A second is that markets—featuring voluntary exchanges between buyers and sellers at mutually determined prices—should play an important role in the allocation of resources.
Those who deny these assumptions will see some debates in business ethics e.
Merck and Wal-Mart are examples of the first type organization; Princeton University and the Metropolitan Museum of Art are examples of the second.
Business ethicists sometimes concern themselves with the activities of non-profit organizations, but more commonly focus on for-profit organizations.
Indeed, most people probably understand businesses as for-profit organizations. Corporate moral agency One way to think about business ethics is in terms of the moral obligations of agents engaged in business activity.
Who is a moral agent? To be precise, the question is whether firms are moral agents and morally responsible considered as qua firms, not considered as aggregates of individual members of firms.
In the business ethics literature, French is a seminal thinker on this topic. He bases this conclusion on his claim that firms have internal decision-making structures, through which they 1 cause events to happen, and 2 act intentionally.
Donaldson claims that firms cannot be persons because they lack important human capacities, such as the ability to pursue their own happiness see also Werhane Other responses denied that firms are moral agents also.
Velasquez argues that firms lack a necessary condition of agency, viz.The definition, (used, especially before a noun, with a specifying or particularizing effect, as opposed to the indefinite or generalizing force of the indefinite article a or an): the book you gave me; Come into the house. See more.
A complaint under Section 12(1)(c) of the Consumer Protection Act can be instituted only by one or more consumers, as defined in Section 2(1)(d) of the Consumer Protection Act. Therefore, a group of Cooperative societies, Firms, Association or other Society cannot file such a complaint unless such society etc.
itself is a consumer as defined in. Tanzanite is the exquisite blue variety of the mineral zoisite that is only found in one part of the world. Named for its limited geographic origin in Tanzania, tanzanite has quickly risen to popularity since its relatively recent discovery.
The Consumer Complaint Database is a collection of complaints on a range of consumer financial products and services, sent to companies for response. We don’t verify all the facts alleged in these complaints, but we take steps to confirm a commercial relationship between the consumer . Consumer Values, Product Benefits and Customer Value: a Consumption Behavior Approach Albert Wenben Lai, University of Wisconsin-Madison ABSTRACT - From the perspective of consumption behavior analysis, this paper constructs a framework of product valuation for consumers and its typology of product benefits.
Life insurance fraud may involve faking death to claim life insurance. Fraudsters may sometimes turn up a few years after disappearing, claiming a loss of memory. An example of life insurance fraud is the John Darwin disappearance case, which was an investigation into the act of pseudocide committed by the British former teacher and prison officer John Darwin, who turned up alive in December.